Publications

Only performance metrics that include all cell components and operation parameters can tell whether a true advance over intercalation batteries has been achieved.…show more

S.A. Freunberger

Singlet oxygen forms at the cathode of a lithium–oxygen cell during discharge and from the onset of charge, and accounts for the majority of parasitic reaction products...show more

N. Mahne, […] S.M. Borisov, S.A. Freunberger

Here we report an biredox ionic liquids that achieve bulk-like redox density at liquid-like fast kinetics.... show more

E. Mourad, […] S.A. Freunberger, F. Favier, O. Fontaine

we show that 1O2 forms upon oxidizing Li2CO3 in an aprotic electrolyte and therefore does not evolve as O2. …. show more

N. Mahne, S.E. Renfrew, B.D. McCloskey, S.A. Freunberger

Singlet oxygen forms in the Na-O2 at all stages of cycling and is a main driver for parasitic chemistry.…. show more

L. Schafzahl, [...], S. M. Borisov, S.A. Freunberger

We review recent advances in understanding the chemistry of the Li–O2 cathode and provide a perspective on dominant research needs….show more

N. Mahne, O. Fontaine, M. Thotiyl, M. Wilkening, S.A. Freunberger

A unified mechanism, which can explain O2 reduction across the whole range of solvents is descrobed.…show more

L. Johnson […] S.A. Freunberger […] J-M. Tarascon, P.G. Bruce

Nature Materials | September 2013

A stable cathode for the aprotic Li-O2 battery
A TiC based cathode reduces greatly side-reactions compared with carbon and exhibits better reversible formation/decomposition of Li2O2 even than nanoporous gold …. show more

M.M. Ottakam Thotiyl, S.A. Freunberger, Z. Peng, Y. Chen, Z. Liu, P. G. Bruce

We show that incorporation of a redox mediator, tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), enables recharging at rates that are impossible for the cell in the absence of the mediator ….show more

Y. Chen, S.A. Freunberger, Z. Peng, O. Fontaine, P.G. Bruce

We show cycling of the Li-O2 battery with dimethyl sulfoxide electrolyte and porous gold electrode…. show more

Z. Peng, S.A. Freunberger, Y. Chen, P.G. Bruce

Although ether-based electrolytes do form Li2O2 on the first discharge they also decompose and that decomposition increases while Li2O2 decreases on cycling. …. show more

S.A. Freunberger, […], P.G. Bruce

Here we show that the widely observed rechargeability of Li-O2 cells with carbonate electrolytes is in fact due to back-to-back irreversible reactions …. show more

S.A. Freunberger […] P.G. Bruce

  1. Inter-Backbone Charge Transfer as Prerequisite for Long-Range Conductivity in Perylene Bisimide Hydrogels
    M. Burian, F. Rigodanza, N. Demitri, L. Đorđević, S. Marchesan, T. Steinhartova, I. Letofsky-Papst, I. Khalakhan, E. Mourad, S.A. Freunberger, H. Amenitsch, M. Prato, Z. Syrgiannis
    ACS Nano in press.

     


  2. Long Chain Li and Na Alkyl Carbonates as Solid Electrolyte Interphase Components: Structure, Ion Transport and Mechanical Properties
    L. Schafzahl, H. Ehmann, M. Kriechbaum, J. Sattelkow, T. Ganner, H. Plank, M. Wilkening, S.A. Freunberger*
    Chem. Mater. 30, 3338 (2018).

     


  3. Electrochemical Oxidation of Lithium Carbonate Generates Singlet Oxygen
    N. Mahne, S.E. Renfrew, B.D. McCloskey, S.A. Freunberger*
    Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 57, 5529 (2018).
    Angew. Chem. 130, 5627 (2018).
    Highlighted as Very Important Paper.

     

  1. Quantifying Total Superoxide, Peroxide, and Carbonaceous Compounds in Metal–O2 Batteries and the Solid Electrolyte Interphase
    B. Schafzahl, E. Mourad, L. Schafzahl, Y. Petit, A.R. Raju, M.M. Ottakam, M. Wilkening, C. Slugovc, S.A. Freunberger*
    ACS Energy Letters 3, 170 (2017).

     

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  2. Singlet Oxygen during Cycling of the Aprotic Na-O2 Battery
    L. Schafzahl, N. Mahne, B. Schafzahl, M. Wilkening, C. Slugovc, S.M. Borisov, S.A. Freunberger*
    Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 56, 15728 (2017).
    Angew. Chem. 129, 15934 (2017).
    Highlighted as Very Important Paper.
    Featuring the Inside Back Cover.

     


  3. Electron-Deficient Near-Infrared Pt(II) and Pd(II) Benzoporphyrins with Dual Phosphorescence and Unusually Efficient Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence – First Demonstration of Simultaneous Oxygen and Temperature Sensing with a Single Emitter
    P.W. Zach, S.A. Freunberger, I. Klimant, S.M. Borisov
    ACS Appl. Mat. Interfaces 9, 38008 (2017).

     


  4. Mechanism and performance of lithium-oxygen batteries – a perspective
    N. Mahne, O. Fontaine, M.M. Ottakam, M. Wilkening, S.A. Freunberger*
    Chemical Science 8, 6716 (2017). invited Perspective full text

     

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  5. Biredox ionic liquids: new opportunities toward high performances supercapacitors
    C. Bodin, E. Mourad, D. Zigah, S. Le Vot, S.A. Freunberger, F. Favier, O. Fontaine
    Faraday Discussions doi: 10.1039/C7FD00174F (advance article).

     


  6. True performance metrics in beyond lithium-ion batteries
    S.A. Freunberger*
    Nature Energy , 2, 17091 (2017).
    Highlighted in Nature Energy 2, 17126 (2017).
    Highlighted in the Nature Energy collection of articles 2017 Edition.
    Highlighted in the Nature collection of energy research articles 2017.

     


  7. Singlet oxygen generation as a main cause for parasitic reactions during cycling of aprotic lithium-oxygen batteries
    N. Mahne, B. Schafzahl, C. Leypold, M. Leypold, S. Grumm, A. Leitgeb, G.A. Strohmeier, M. Wilkening, O. Fontaine, D. Kramer, C. Slugovc, S.M. Borisov, S.A. Freunberger*
    Nature Energy , 2, 17036 (2017).
    Highlighted in News & Views, A.C. Luntz & B.D. McCloskey. Nature Energy 2, 17056 (2017).

     


  8. Biredox ionic liquids with solid-like redox density in the liquid state for high-energy supercapacitors
    E. Mourad, L. Coustan, P. Lannelongue, D. Zigah, A. Mehdi, A. Vioux, S.A. Freunberger, F. Favier, O. Fontaine
    Nature Materials , 16, 446-453 (2017).

     


  9. An Electrolyte for Reversible Cycling of Na Metal and Na Intercalation Compounds
    L. Schafzahl, I. Hanzu, M. Wilkening, S.A. Freunberger*
    ChemSusChem 10, 401-408, (2017).

     

  1. Batteries: Charging ahead rationally
    S.A. Freunberger*
    Nature Energy 1, 16074 (2016). invited News & Views

     


  2. Proton conducting hollow graphene oxide cylinder as molecular fuel barrier for tubular H2-air fuel cell
    R. Thimmappa, M. C. Devendrachari, S. Shafi, S.A. Freunberger*, M. Ottakam Thotiyl*
    Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 41, 22305–22315 (2016).

     


  3. Method for determination of the internal short resistance and heat evolution at different echanical loads of a lithium ion battery cell based on dummy pouch cells.
    T. Volck, W. Sinz, G. Gstrein, C. Breitfuss, S. Heindl, H. Steffan, S.A. Freunberger, M. Wilkening, M. Uitz, C. Fink, A. Geier
    Batteries 2, 8, (2016).

     


  4. Lithium insertion properties of mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 and TiO2-V2O5 microspheres prepared by non-hydrolytic sol-gel
    M. Perez, N. Louvain, M. Kaschowitz, S.A. Freunberger, O. Fontaine, B. Boury, N. Brun, H.Mutin
    Sol-Gel Science Techn. 79, 270, (2016).

     


  5. Biredox ionic liquids: electrochemical investigation and impact of ion size on electron transfer
    E. Mourad, L. Coustan, S.A. Freunberger, A. Mehdi, A. Vioux, F. Favier, O. Fontaine
    Electrochimica Acta 206, 513 (2016).

     


  6. Evaluating the Trade-Off Between Mechanical and Electrochemical Performance of Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Methodology and Application.
    M. Plaimer, C. Breitfuß, W. Sinz, S. Heindl, C. Ellersdorfer, H. Steffan, M. Wilkening, V. Hennige, Reinhard Tatschl, A. Geier, C. Schramm, S.A. Freunberger*
    J. Power Sources 306, 702 (2016).

     


  7. A Moisture- and Oxygen-Impermeable Separator for Aprotic Li-O2 Batteries
    B. G. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J. Min, Y.-H. Lee, J. H. Choi, M. C. Jang, S.A. Freunberger, and J. W. Choi
    Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 1747 (2016).

     

  1. The role of LiO2 solubility in O2 reduction in aprotic solvents and its consequences for Li–O2 batteries
    L. Johnson, C. Li, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, S.A. Freunberger, P.C. Ashok, B.B. Praveen, K.Dholakia, J.-M. Tarascon, P.G. Bruce
    Nature Chemistry 6, 1091 (2014). [106] ISI Highly Cited/Hot Paper

     

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  2. Photoinduced Electron Transfer Efficiency of Fluorescent pH-Probes with Halogenated Phenols
    D. Aigner, S.A. Freunberger, M. Wilkening, R. Saf, S.M. Borisov, I. Klimant, Enhancing
    Anal. Chem., 86, 9293 (2014).

     


  3. Short-range Li diffusion vs long-range ionic conduction in nanocrystalline lithium peroxide Li2O2 – the discharge product in lithium-air batteries.
    A. Dunst, V. Epp, I. Hanzu, S.A. Freunberger, and M. Wilkening
    Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 2739 (2014).

     

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  4. Materials Challenges in Rechargeable Lithium-Oxygen Batteries
    N. Ortiz-Vitoriano, D. Kwabi, S.A. Freunberger, Y.Chen, P.G.Bruce, N. Imanishi, Y. Shao-Horn
    MRS bulletin, 39, 443-452, doi:10.1557/mrs.2014.87 (2014).

     


  5. Aprotic Li–O2 Battery: Influence of Complexing Agents on Oxygen Reduction in an Aprotic Solvent
    C. Li, O. Fontaine, S.A. Freunberger, L. Johnson, S. Grugeon, S. Laruelle, P.G. Bruce, M. Armand
    J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 3393 (2014).

     

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  1. A stable cathode for the aprotic Li-O2 battery
    M.M. Ottakam Thotiyl, S.A. Freunberger, Z. Peng, Y. Chen, Z. Liu, P. G. Bruce
    Nature Materials 12, 1050 (2013).

     

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  2. Charging a Li-O2 battery using a redox mediator
    Y. Chen*, S.A. Freunberger*, Z. Peng, O. Fontaine, P.G. Bruce
    Nature Chemistry 5, 489 (2013). *equal contributions

    Highlighted in News & Analysis | Energy Focus: MRS Bulletin 38, 529 (2013).
    Highlighted in News & Views, Y. Wang & Y. Xia. Nature Chemistry 5, 445 (2013).

     

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  1. The carbon electrode in non-aqueous Li-O2 cells
    M.M. Ottakam Thotiyl, S.A. Freunberger, Z. Peng, P. G. Bruce
    J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 494 (2012).

     

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  2. Challenges Facing Lithium Batteries and Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors
    N.S. Choi, Z. Chen, S.A. Freunberger, G. Yushin, X. Ji, Y.K. Sun, K. Amine, L.F. Nazar, J. Cho, P.G. Bruce
    Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 9994 (2012); Angew. Chem.,124, 10134 (2012).

     


  3. A reversible and higher rate Li-O2 battery
    Z. Peng*, S.A. Freunberger*, Y. Chen, P. G. Bruce
    Science 337, 563 (2012). *equal contributions [373].

    Research Highlight | Electrochemistry: Rechargeable Li-air battery. Nature 488, 8 (2012).
    Issue Highlight in Science 3 August 2012, early publication in Sciencexpress due to its high importance.

     

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  4. The Li-O2 battery with a dimethylformamide electrolyte
    Y. Chen, S.A. Freunberger, P. G. Bruce
    J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 7952 (2012).

     

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  5. Li-O2 and Li-S Batteries with High Energy Storage
    P. G. Bruce, S.A. Freunberger, L. J. Hardwick, J-M. Tarascon
    Nature Mater. 11, 19 (2012).

    Rated ‘Hot paper’ for its importance in a rapidly evolving field of high current interest.

     

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  1. The Lithium-Oxygen Battery with Ether-based Electrolytes
    S.A. Freunberger, Y. Chen, N. E. Drewett, L. J. Hardwick, F. Bardé, P. G. Bruce
    Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 8609 (2011); Angew. Chem. 123, 8768 (2011).

    Rated ‘Hot paper’ for its importance in a rapidly evolving field of high current interest.

     

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  2. Reactions in the rechargeable lithium-O2 battery with alkyl carbonate electrolytes
    S. A. Freunberger, Y. Chen, Z. Peng, J. M. Griffin, L. J. Hardwick, F. Bardé, P. Novák, P. G. Bruce
    J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 8040 (2011).

     

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  3. Oxygen Reactions in a Non-Aqueous Li+ Electrolyte
    Z. Peng, S. A. Freunberger, L. J. Hardwick, Y. Chen, V. Giordani, F. Bardé, P. Novák, D. Graham, J.-M. Tarascon, P. G. Bruce
    Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 6351 (2011).

     


  4. H2O2 decomposition reaction as selecting tool for catalysts in Li-O2 cells
    V. Giordani, S.A. Freunberger, P.G. Bruce, J.-M. Tarascon, D. Larcher
    Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 14, A64 (2011).

     


  5. Activated Lithium-Metal-Oxides as Catalytic Electrodes for Li-O2 Cells
    L. Trahey, C.S. Johnson, J.T. Vaughey, S.-H. Kang, L.J. Hardwick, S.A. Freunberger, P.G. Bruce, M.M. Thackeray
    Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 13, A180 (2010).

     


  6. Measuring the Current Distribution in PEFCs with Sub-Millimeter Resolution, II. Impact of Operating Parameters
    M. Reum, S.A. Freunberger, A. Wokaun, F.N. Büchi
    J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, B301 (2009).

     


  7. Anisotropic, effective diffusivity of porous gas diffusion layer materials for PEFC
    R. Flückiger, S.A. Freunberger, D. Kramer, A. Wokaun, G.G. Scherer, F.N. Büchi
    Electrochim. Acta 54, 551 (2008).

     


  8. Cell Interaction Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Stacks
    S.A. Freunberger, I.A. Schneider, P.-C. Sui, A. Wokaun, N. Djilali, F.N. Büchi
    J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, B704 (2008).

     


  9. Electrochemical diffusimetry of fuel cell gas diffusion layers
    D. Kramer, S.A. Freunberger, R. Flückiger, I.A. Schneider, A. Wokaun, F.N. Büchi, G.G. Scherer:
    J. Electroanalyt. Chem. 612, 63 (2008).

     


  10. Consumption and Efficiency of a Passenger Car with a Hydrogen/Oxygen PEFC based Hybrid Electric Drive Train
    F.N. Büchi, G. Paganelli, P. Dietrich, D. Laurent, A. Tsukada, P.-A. Magne, D. Walser, P. Varenne, R. Kötz, S.A. Freunberger, A. Delfino, D. Olsommer
    Fuel Cells 7, 329 (2007).

     


  11. On the Efficiency of an Advanced Automotive Fuel Cell System
    F.N. Büchi, S.A. Freunberger, M. Reum, G. Paganelli, A. Tsukada, P. Dietrich, A. Delfino
    Fuel Cells 7, 159 (2007).

     


  12. Oscillations in the gas channels, I. The Forgotten Player in Impedance Spectroscopy in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
    I.A. Schneider, S.A. Freunberger, D. Kramer, A. Wokaun, G.G. Scherer
    J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, B383 (2007).

     


  13. Experimental Investigation of Coupling Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Stacks
    M. Santis, S.A. Freunberger, M. Papra, A. Wokaun, F.N. Büchi
    J. Power Sources 161, 1076 (2006).

     


  14. Measuring the Current Distribution in PEFCs with Sub-Millimeter Resolution, I. Methodology
    S.A. Freunberger, M. Reum, J. Evertz, A. Wokaun, F.N. Büchi
    J. Electrochem. Soc. 153, A2158 (2006).

    Selected as 2006 Energy Research Highlight at Paul Scherrer Institute.

     

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  15. Expanding Current Distribution Measurement in PEFCs to Sub-Millimeter Resolution
    S.A. Freunberger, M. Reum, A. Wokaun, F.N. Büchi
    Electrochem. Commun. 8, 1438 (2006).

     


  16. Homogenization of the Current Density in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells by In-Plane Cathode Catalyst Gradients
    M. Santis, S.A. Freunberger, A. Reiner, F.N. Büchi
    Electrochimica Acta 51, 5383 (2006).

     


  17. In-Plane Effects in Large Scale PEFC, II. The Influence of Cooling Strategy on Cell Performance
    S.A. Freunberger, A. Wokaun, F.N. Büchi
    J. Electrochem. Soc. 153, A909 (2006).

     


  18. In-Plane Effects in Large Scale PEFC, I. Model Formulation and Validation
    S.A. Freunberger, M. Santis, I.A. Schneider, A. Wokaun, F.N. Büchi
    J. Electrochem. Soc. 153, A396 (2006).

     


  19. What is Learned Beyond the Scale of Single Cells?
    F.N. Büchi, S.A. Freunberger, M. Santis
    ECS Trans. 3, 963 (2006).

     


  20. Fuel Cell Modeling and Simulation
    J. Mantzaras, S.A. Freunberger, F.N. Büchi, M. Roos, W. Brandstätter, M. Prestat, L.L. Gauckler, B. Andreaus, F. Hajbolouri, S.M. Senn, D. Poulikakos, A.K. Chaniotis, D. Larrain, N. Autissier, F. Marechal,
    Chimia 58, 857 (2004).

     


  21. Modular Stack-Internal Air Humidification Concept-Verification in a 1kW Stack
    M. Santis, D. Schmid, M. Ruge, S.A. Freunberger, F.N. Büchi
    Fuel Cells 4, 214 (2004).

     

Patents

  1. Stable non-aqueous electrolyte promoting ideal reaction process in rechargeable Metal-Air batteries
    F. Bardé, P.G. Bruce, S.A. Freunberger, Y. Chen
    Int. Patent Nr. WO2013053378-A1 (2013).
  2. Production and composition of cathode material for rechargeable lithium-air batteries
    F. Bardé, P.G. Bruce, S.A. Freunberger, Y. Chen
    Int. Patent Nr. WO 2012111169 (2012).
  3. Cathode catalyst for rechargeable metal-air rechargeable metal-air battery
    F. Bardé, P.G. Bruce, S.A. Freunberger
    Int. Patent Nr: PCT/JP2010/059494 (2010).
  4. Method and device for the stacking of fuel cells
    F.N. Büchi, S.A. Freunberger
    Int. Patent Nr: PCT/EP03/07840 (2003).

 

Book Chapters

  1. Polysaccharides in Supercapacitors
    Soon Yee Liew, Wim Thielemans, S.A. Freunberger, Stefan Spirk
    Springer (2016), in press. invited contribution.

  2. Non-aqueous Electrolytes
    S. A. Freunberger, Y. Chen, F. Bardé, K. Takechi, F. Mizuno, P.G. Bruce
    Lithium-air batteries – Fundamentals, Springer (2014), ISBN 978-1-4899-8062-5. invited contribution
  3. Design Approaches for Determining Local Current and Resistance in PEFC
    S.A. Freunberger, M. Reum, F.N. Büchi
    Handbook of Fuel Cells – Fundamentals, Technology and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, New York, Vol. 6, Chapter 41 (2009). invited contribution